U.S. and Latin America Review Fight Against Trafficking in Weapons of Mass Destruction

first_imgBy Dialogo May 15, 2009 On Thursday military and defense experts from around the world concluded a three-day meeting in Miami in which they analyzed measures to combat illicit trafficking in weapons of mass destruction and their components, the U.S. Southern Command reports. The conference, organized by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Southern Command, brings together 34 countries. One of the topics of discussion was the traffic in weapons of mass destruction and related materials within the Americas. “Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States share a common interest in preventing the proliferation of WMD in our hemisphere,” said Paul Trivelli, Foreign Policy Adviser to the Southern Command, who considers it essential for countries to coordinate their efforts in the prevention of trafficking in weapons and combating networks that profit from it. For his part, Gary Moore, who coordinates the monitoring of the proliferation of armaments and weapons of mass destruction at the White House, said that President Obama “has promised to pursue the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons,” but that this goal cannot be achieved without international security initiatives to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Together with North American and Canadian experts, Latin American representatives of Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, and Paraguay also took part of the event.last_img read more

Jennifer Ellison Brown: Muscle contraction and types of movement

first_img When a prime mover contracts, the antagonist muscle will keep some fibres contracting to exert a ‘braking’ influence to stop the prime mover moving the joint so hard that the antagonist are damaged. Sometimes this system fails, for example, when a sprinter is running flat out, he may tear the hamstring and quickly come to a painful stop. The muscles we use depend on the activity, whether it requires muscles in the upper body or lower body to work together for short periods, or both at different phases of the activity, or most of the muscles of the body vigorously for longer periods (wrestling). All muscles contract and develop tension. However, the type of resistance the muscles meet will determine the type of muscle action. There are three main types of muscle contractions: – Isotonic concentric the muscles shorten as they contract and the ends of the muscle moves closer together e.g.; the biceps when doing pull ups. Most sporting movements are of this type. – Isotonic eccentric the muscles lengthen as they contract under tension, the ends of the muscles move further apart. e.g. the bicep works in this way when the body is lowered from pull-up position. – Isometric contraction the muscles stay the same length as they contract, there is no movement so the ends of the muscle stay the same distance apart. Shoulder muscles work in this way during the tug-o-war activity and the stabilising muscles that hold parts of the body steady as other parts move in many sporting movements. When we perform sporting activities we move our limbs in many different directions to affect the type of movements needed to execute various skills. Special words are used to describe the movements: – Extension The limbs straighten at the joint, eg, reaching to catch a ball (netball) – Flexion The limbs bend at the joint, eg, bending the trail leg at the knee when clearing hurdles. – Abduction The limbs move away from the midline of the body. – Adduction The limbs move towards the midline of the body – Rotation Circular movement. Part of the body turns while the rest remain still, E.g. rotation of the hip to play a shot in golf. – Circumduction- The end of a bone move in a circle, e.g., bowling in cricket – Inversion A lifting of the medial border of the arch combines with a medial bending of the front of the foot. – Eversion A slight rising of the lateral border of the foot combines with a slight lateral bending of the front of the foot. – Pronation Rotation of the forearm so that the palm turns medially. – Supination Rotation of the forearm so that the palm turns laterally. Every movement that takes place in the body depends on muscles. They work by contracting. The cardiac muscles in the heart contracts to pump blood out of the heart. Involuntary muscles in the artery walls contract to squirt the blood along and voluntary muscles which will be the main focus work when needed. A voluntary skeletal muscle contains nerves, which carry messages to and from the brain. Therefore, a muscle contracts when messages from the brain race along the nerve fibres, telling them to contract. It relaxes when the messages tell the fibres to lengthen again. Muscles work in pairs or groups. They have to work in pairs because muscles can only pull, they can’t push. For example, the biceps and triceps work together to execute the arm curl movement. To flex the arm, the biceps contract and the triceps relax. To straighten it, the triceps contract and the biceps relax. Large numbers of pairs of muscles are needed to work together in the different ways for even simple body movements. The muscles take on different roles, depending on the movement that is performed. They can work as: – Flexors contracting to bend a joint – Extensors contracting to straighten a joint – Prime movers or agonist contracting to start a movement (biceps muscles perform this role in arm curl) – Antagonist relaxing to allow the movement to take place (the triceps muscles perform this role in arm curl) The biceps and triceps will swap places as the prime mover and antagonist when arm is straightened. – Fixators contracting to steady parts of the body to give the working muscles a firm base. (the deltoid perform this role in the arm curl) – Synergist reducing unnecessary movement when a prime mover contracts. They can also fine tune the movement (the brachialis in the forearm performs this role in the arm curl) PAINFUL STOPlast_img read more

South Africa could be swimming in opportunity

first_img”We hope to have a draft Oceans Bill ready in 2015. The Oceans Act will provide a clear foundation for marine spatial planning,” President Jacob Zuma told a Durban audience • The growth of fish farming in South Africa • Africa most vulnerable to climate change • National Development Plan: Utopian dream, practical blueprint • G20: Africa’s growth can stabilise the world economy • Stalled on the Trans-Africa Highway Sulaiman PhilipEconomic activity in the marine sector contributed R54-billion ($4.9-billion) and approximately 316 000 jobs to the South African economy in 2010. That is a drop in the ocean of possible benefits that the country, and Africa, can reap from the sea. A new study based on the government’s Operation Phakisa protocols hopes to map out channels that will navigate the choppy waters between planning and implementation and grow South Africa’s blue economy.The country could soon have its own national shipping company and could become oil and energy independent if the estimated nine billion barrels of oil and 11 billion barrels of shale gas do actually lie beneath the waves of South Africa’s territorial waters. Other commercial channels in the blue economy stream could add a million jobs and R150-billion to the gross domestic product (GDP).At a press conference in Durban, President Jacob Zuma laid out the government’s plan to utilise the economic potential of the country’s oceans to grow the economy by at least 5% by 2019. A working group made up economists, maritime lawyers, businessmen and civil servants doing research under the Operation Phakisa umbrella identified opportunities in the fields of aquaculture, ship building and maintenance, and fishing. Of the eighty oil rigs estimated to be in the range of the Western Cape, only four rigs are serviced per year, showing significant potential for growth.Outlining opportunities to which the group drew attention, the president said: “The teams have highlighted a concern that South Africa currently has no registered ships. This is in spite of the fact that each year 300 million tons of cargo move through our ports in imports and exports. In addition, 1.2 million tons of liquid fuels move along our coast, while the rapidly expanding offshore oil and gas activities require a supporting fleet of vessels.”South Africa is a land of opportunity, with abundant natural resources and a labour pool large enough to increase GDP growth to match the development figures of its partners to the north. Strategies have been formulated but plans have fallen, hobbled by a failure to successfully implement them. National Development PlanThe task Zuma set the research group in July 2013 was not how to utilise South Africa’s marine riches; instead, they were tasked with drawing up ways to use the government’s Phakisa protocols to successfully implement policies aligned to the National Development Plan (NDP). Operation Phakisa Ocean Economy is the first of an ongoing series of research initiatives. Another, the Health Economy programme, has just begun and will test the viability of the Ministry of Health’s Ideal Clinic initiative.The Operation Phakisa labs will be used to means test NDP programmes for effectiveness. Based on the Malaysian government’s Big Fast Results method of tracking delivery, the operation is designed to give the government real-time information on the effectiveness of NDP programmes. Real-time results mean the government can implement immediate changes and end wasteful expenditure. With clearly defined targets, well-defined direction and faultless allocation of resources, the government hopes to encourage buy-in to the NDP from public and private spheres.Operation Phakisa breaks initiatives down to their smallest components to test their effectiveness in the real world. It is what Malaysia calls the “three-foot level”. Governments tend to plan big – the 30 000 foot level – but for those programmes to succeed you need a three-foot plan: namely, Operation Phakisa.Globally, the idea of the oceans as a source of development rather than a dumping ground has taken hold. Developed economies have formulated environmental strategies that allow them to sustainably exploit their marine resources. Following that example, South Africa will begin to develop environmental standards for off-shore exploration and exploitation. Aquaculture contributes to almost half of the global fish supply, it contributes less than one percent of South Africa’s fish supply. Blue economyThe “blue economy” concept, whereby oceans are seen as opportunities for development that require co-ordinated planning to preserve and sustain that development, has been pushed by the Small Island Developing States group of nations. In the Southern African Development Community region, The Seychelles has been the torch bearer of the idea. The Indian Ocean island nation loses up to $40-million a year to the 30 000 foreign trawlers that exploit its waters. It is unable to utilise this natural resource to develop its economy because it does not have the resources to float its own commercial fishing fleet.African Development Bank forums have made it easier for African governments to discuss mutual co-operation in building interconnected blue economies. In the eyes of Donal Kaberuka, the president of the bank, Africans deserve to benefit from Africa’s resources. At the recent African Development Banks 2014 Annual Meeting, The Seychelles called for co-operation with other African countries so that it was the continent that benefitted from its natural resources.Former minister in the presidency Trevor Manuel underscored that the benefits of co-operation would spread beyond Africa’s coastal nations. “The inability of African countries to work together on this issue is what continues to hinder meaningful development and allows others to benefit from Africa’s resources. The benefits of co-operation are not limited to coastal countries; the benefits are spread to neighbouring landlocked countries that rely on these ports for export and trade.”Overfishing is an immediate and growing concern for coastal African nations. For 30% of Africa’s population, about 200 million people, fish is the main and cheapest source of protein. Over the next 20 years that population will double and without the shepherding of fish stocks, hunger will become a bigger problem than it is now.last_img read more

Apple: Time to Drop Anti-PC Sarcasm from TV Ads

first_imgA Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… guest author 1 Related Posts I always looked forward to seeing new “I’m a Mac – I’m a PC” ads on television. As a long-time Mac fan and a marketing pro, I really admired these spots. They were smart and edgy, yet friendly. They were fun. They differentiated Macs from PCs. From a marketing perspective, they were appropriate to Apple’s David fighting Microsoft’s Goliath. And they worked really well, perhaps better than any other mass-market technology product ads.Now I wince every time I see a new one, hoping its smug attitude and condescending tone doesn’t go too far.This guest post was written by Frank Cioffi.I also relished how Apple’s spots unhinged Microsoft, prompting the Goliath to produce its own, usually inept, TV ads that broke a major rule of marketing: never appear reactive to a smaller competitor. Microsoft’s PC ads and the flurry of Ballmer-isms that accompanied them, all on the heels of the Windows Vista catastrophe, actually seemed to reinforce Apple’s point.But what has worked for Apple over the last three years doesn’t seem to work as well now. Call it a psychographic observation, but the theme is getting tired, and the emotional impact of the ads has shifted. The superior, mocking tone of the ads sometimes goes too far, especially now as the new Windows 7 is being well received. Don’t get me wrong. I’m a born-and-raised New Yorker. I like sarcasm. But for me, edgy has gone over the edge in some of these ads.Do we Mac users tend to feel superior? Of course. We know we enjoy the world’s most elegant operating system. But when a Mac evangelist like me starts feeling mildly apologetic about these spots and empathizing with the PC guy, something is amiss.Does Apple’s research show that prospective Mac customers, their intended audience, still like these ads? I assume so. But perhaps Microsoft’s jab at Apple in its TV ads earlier this year (the one in which PC buyer Lauren says, “Maybe I’m not cool enough” to be a Mac person) was accurate, signaling that Apple’s approach borders on arrogance, especially as it gains ever greater market share.While Mac’s market share still pales in comparison to Windows, Apple is no longer a David. With its omnipresent retail stores, the iconic iPod and the runaway popularity of the iPhone, Apple is a real and perceived leader. It has a market cap of over $170 billion and more cash than Cisco or Microsoft. Its TV ads, its recent mishandling of App Store developer issues and criticism from prominent tech journalists show that the Apple perception machine is showing cracks. The company is starting to appear arrogant.To its credit, Apple’s iPhone television ads are clean and crisp, relaying useful features and the latest apps. And not all of the Mac-PC ads are disdainful. The recent one with actor Robert Loggia as PC’s coach is fun. But the spot portraying a top-of-the-line PC model as a semi-sleazy sales guy? That’s when I cringe. The new spots reacting to Windows 7? Not so bad, but they still rely too much on criticizing Microsoft. There’s a difference between conveying product superiority and having a superior attitude.For this Mac fan, these ads are past their peak. They were great fun for a while. But it’s time to shift the tone or move on. Certainly Apple’s creative teams can come up with a follow-up act that is informative, entertaining and edgy, without sounding smug. Otherwise, Apple runs the risk of (gasp!) emulating Microsoft.Guest author: Frank Cioffi is editor and publisher of Apple Investor News, the Apple-only news aggregator and part of the Tech Investor News network.. 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketcenter_img Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#Apple#web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…last_img read more