Jennifer Ellison-Brown: The excretory system

first_img Kidneys and homestasis The kidneys play many vital roles in homeostasis. They filter all the blood in the body many times each day and produce a total of about 1.5 litres of urine. The kidneys control the amount of water, ions and other substances in the blood by excreting more or less of them in urine. The kidneys also secrete hormones that help maintain homeostasis. The kidneys themselves are also regulated by hormones. For example, antidiuretic hormone from the hypothalamus stimulates the kidneys to produce more concentrated urine when the body is low on water. This process is known as osmoregulation. If you exercise on a hot day, you are likely to lose a lot of water in sweat. Then, for the next several hours, you may notice that you do not pass urine as often as normal and that your urine is darker than usual. This happens because your body is low on water and trying to reduce the amount of water lost in urine. The amount of water the body loses in urine is controlled by the kidneys, the main organs of the excretory system. Excretion is the process of removing waste and excess water from the body. It is one of the major ways the body maintains homeostasis (the process of maintaining a stable internal environment). Although the kidneys are the main organs of excretion, several other organs also excrete waste. They include the large intestine, liver, skin and lungs. All of these organs of excretion, along with the kidneys, make up the excretory system. The focus will be on the role of the kidneys in excretion. The roles of the other excretory organs are summarised below: – The large intestine eliminates solid waste that remains after the digestion of food. – The liver breaks down excess amino acids and toxins in the blood. – The skin eliminates excess water and salts in sweat. – The lungs exhale water vapour and carbon dioxide. The kidneys are part of the urinary system, which is shown above. The main function of the urinary system is to filter waste products and excess water from the blood and excrete them from the body. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs just above the waist. A cross section of a kidney is shown in the diagram above. The function of the kidney is to filter blood and form urine. Urine is the liquid waste product of the body that is excreted by the urinary system. Nephrons are the structural and functional units of the kidneys. A single kidney may have more than a million nephrons. Each kidney is supplied by a renal artery and a renal vein. As shown in figure above, each nephron is like a tiny filtering plant. It filters blood and forms urine in the following steps: 1. Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into capillaries. When blood passes through capillaries of a nephron, blood pressure forces some of the water and dissolved substances in the blood to cross the capillary walls into the Bowman’s capsule. 2. The filtered substances pass to the renal tubule of the nephron. In the renal tubule, some of the filtered substances are reabsorbed and returned to the bloodstream. Other substances are secreted into the fluid. 3. The fluid passes to a collecting duct, which reabsorbs some of the water and returns it to the bloodstream. The fluid that remains in the collecting duct is urine. From the collecting ducts of the kidneys, urine enters the ureters, two muscular tubes that move the urine by peristalsis to the bladder. The bladder is a hollow, sac-like organ that stores urine. When the bladder is about half full, it sends a nerve impulse to a sphincter to relax and let urine flow out of the bladder and into the urethra. The urethra is a muscular tube that carries urine out of the body. Urine leaves the body through another sphincter in the process of urination. This sphincter and the process of urination are normally under conscious control.last_img read more

T&F News picks Van Niekerk, Wlodarczyk

first_imgTRACK AND FIELD NEWS, the respected US magazine, has selected Wayde van Niekerk and Anita Wlodarczyk as its Athletes of the Year for 2016. Wlodarczyk, Poland’s Olympic hammer throw champion and van Niekerk, the South African who won the Olympic 400 metre final, were given clear margins by the panel of experts whose choices appear on the magazine’s website. Jamaica’s Olympic sprint double winners Usain Bolt and Elaine Thompson appear at number 3 in the publication’s annual world ranking issue, with 110 metre hurdles champion Omar McLeod at number 9 in the men’s compilation.major highlightThe 24-year-old South African van Niekerk received 28 of 32 votes for the top spot, with the others going to Kenya’s Olympic marathon winner Eliud Kipchoge (2), Britain’s 5,000 and 10,000 winner Mo Farah, and Bolt (1 each). The South African’s stunning world record of 43.03 seconds in the Olympic final was a major highlight of the season.Undefeated in 12 meets, Wlodarczyk got 21 of the 32 votes from the TRACK AND NEWS panel of experts for the number 1 position in the rankings. The 31 year-old Pole set a world record to win at the Olympics and raised it to 82.98 metres later. Remarkably, she launched the 42 longest throws of the year.Ethiopia’s Almaz Ayana, (6), Thompson (3) and Keni Harrison, the world record breaker US 100 metre hurdler, received the other votes for number 1.The women’s top 51. Anita Wlodarczyk (Poland) hammer2. Almaz Ayana (Ethiopia) longdistances3. Elaine Thompson (Jamaica) sprints4. Ruth Jebet (Bahrain) steeplechase5. Keni Harrison (US) 100m hurdlesThe men’s top 51. Wayde van Niekerk(South Africa) 400m2. Mo Farah (Great Britain) 5000, 10,000 metres3. Usain Bolt (Jamaica) 100, 200m4. Eliud Kipchoge (Kenya) marathon5. Ashton Eaton (US) decathlon9. Omar McLeod (Jamaica) 110m hurdleslast_img read more

Barren spell continues for Ramgeet as lead dwindles

first_imgPHOENIX, Arizona, (CMC): Andrew Ramgeet’s lead in the Turf Paradise jockeys standings continued to shrink steadily after the Jamaican could only log a single win on Wednesday’s eight-race card. The victory – his first in four race days – left Ramgeet just four clear of main rival Scott Stevens on 81 wins for the campaign which still has seven weeks to run. David Lopez and Jorge Bourdieu both lie third on 67 wins. Only last month, a rich vein of form saw Ramgeet open up a healthy lead but the subsequent dry spell has now tossed the championship race wide open again. WINLESS DAY He appeared set for another winless day on Wednesday before he found the enclosure in the last of his three rides in race seven, steering favourite Entitled Star to a handsome victory over the four-year-old and upward fillies and mares in race seven. Going 71/2 furlongs, Ramgeet trailed in fourth through the opening quarter as Wild Derby Daze, ridden by his son Andre Ramgeet, made the early running. Ramgeet Sr roused the four-year-old bay filly exiting the backstretch, grabbed the lead on the far turn and steadily drew off to reach the wire 31/4 lengths clear. Luck went against Ramgeet in another 71/2 furlong trip in race four as he missed out by a neck with favourite Dynamic Scoring to eventual winner Dreamcatcher.last_img read more

Vettel fastest in Ferrari on cold 2nd day of F1 testing

first_imgFerrari driver Sebastian Vettel of Germany steers his car during a Formula One pre-season testing session at the Catalunya racetrack in Montmelo, outside Barcelona, Spain, Tuesday, Feb. 27, 2018. (AP Photo/Francisco Seco)MONTMELO, Spain — Sebastian Vettel was faster than rival Valtteri Bottas on the second session of Formula One testing on Tuesday, as bad weather continued to complicate preparations for the upcoming season.Vettel set the pace with a lap of 1 minute, 19.673 seconds in the German’s first drive of the new Ferrari.ADVERTISEMENT Phivolcs records 2 ‘discrete weak ash explosions’ at Taal Volcano Nueva Ecija warehouse making fake cigarettes raided, 29 Chinese workers nabbed Even with temperatures at their highest, both Vettel and Sauber rookie Charles Leclerc spun off the track and into the gravel.Kevin Magnussen had the biggest scare of the day. The Haas driver was about to crash when he managed to regain control and skirt just alongside the barrier until returning to the track.Vandoorne’s third-best time, however, came on a faster set of tires than Verstappen. Much more worrying was that his session was cut short by a problem with the car’s exhaust that the team said it was investigating.McLaren teammate Fernando Alonso had a wheel pop off on Monday, limiting his driving time as well.The hiccups don’t bode well for a team trying to rebound after three disappointing years with Honda by changing to Renault engines.Red Bull’s fortunes turned after Daniel Ricciardo set the fastest time and clocked the most laps on Monday.Verstappen had trouble getting his car out of the garage early because of a problem identified by the team as a “minor fuel leak.”Defending champion Lewis Hamilton was scheduled to relieve Bottas at midday. But Mercedes announced after the lunch break was cancelled that Bottas would continue behind the wheel “to maximize our mileage after the poor track conditions limited running this morning.”That means Hamilton has made 25 laps in the Mercedes so far.Vettel recorded the most laps for the session with 98, four more than Bottas. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Vettel said that it was too early to size up Mercedes or the rest of the potential contenders.“For sure you look at the others and compare, but it’s very difficult. So I think we should not get into details too much because it is a bit pointless,” Vettel said. “First we try to understand the car. A lot of mileage, that is the key right now, and then later we focus on performance.”Robert Kubica, who hasn’t raced in F1 since 2010 after being badly injured in a rally crash, served as Williams’ reserve driver in the afternoon. He completed 48 laps and the seventh fastest time.Testing near Barcelona runs until Thursday. A second four-day session will be held from March 6-9.The season-opening Australian GP is on March 25.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Bottas was next at 0.303 seconds slower in his Mercedes.They were followed by McLaren’s Stoffel Vandoorne, who just edged Red Bull’s Max Verstappen for the third fastest time.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folk“In terms of general operation everything is really smooth. So it is good to come here and switch on the car and be able to run,” Vettel said. “Obviously the limiting factor was the weather. I think the next two days won’t be much better but I hope next week will be.”Cold and wet conditions, which reduce the tire’s grip on the tarmac, limited driving for a second straight day with only six more test days left before the season starts in Melbourne. UK plans Brexit celebrations but warns businesses may suffer A track temperature of 4 degrees (39 F) when the session started kept most drivers in the garages until things warmed up by noon.To make up some of the lost time, officials granted the teams’ request to cancel the one-hour lunch break.But light snow fell on the track as temperatures fell again with an hour remaining for the session.“It was very cold on track today. I don’t think I’ve ever driven in such cold conditions before in Formula One,” Bottas said. “The tires are just not made for these conditions. But we made the most out of the day.”More snow is forecast for Wednesday.ADVERTISEMENT GALLERY: Barangay Ginebra back as PBA Governors’ Cup kingscenter_img Phivolcs records 2 ‘discrete weak ash explosions’ at Taal Volcano Steam emission over Taal’s main crater ‘steady’ for past 24 hours Cavaliers ban fan who aimed racial taunts at Spurs’ Mills Sea turtle trapped in net freed in Legazpi City It’s too early to present Duterte’s ‘legacy’ – Lacson LATEST STORIES MOST READ Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew View commentslast_img read more

NPGA to hold Annual General Meeting on November 12; seeking business-minded individuals to join Board

first_imgFORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The North Peace Gymnastics Association will be holding its Annual General Meeting on November 12.According to NPGA Board Chair, Jennifer Snider, originally, the AGM was scheduled for October 29 but was rescheduled to allow the Association time to continue to seek out business-minded individuals who are eager to help shape the NPGA’s future.Since growing the Association, to close to 1,000 members, Snider says they are now looking to make a stronger board and are seeking individuals to join that are looking to focus on the future of the Club through mission statements, succession planning and policy development.- Advertisement -The North Peace Gymnastics Association’s Annual General Meeting is taking place on November 12 at 6:30 p.m., at the Party Room in the NPGA facilities on 95 Avenue.If you are interested in joining the NPGA or for more information, you can send an email to npga@telus.net.last_img read more

GRA offers 50% off interest on outstanding taxes

first_img…as entity extends tax amnesty periodThe Guyana Revenue Authority (GRA) has given tax defaulters extra time to pay their arrears with its announcement that the tax amnesty period has entered its second and final phase.On Tuesday, the tax body said this final phase of the tax amnesty period will run from July 1 to September 30, 2018.According to information disclosed, both individual and corporate taxpayers who file all outstanding tax returns (true and correct) and pay all principal taxes, “can qualify for fifty percent (50%) off all interests and penalties” in the final phase.GRA said: “This recourse to settle tax liability applies to those who are delinquent in filing and payment, those who mistakenly underreported or understated their income, and/or those who are subjected to completed audits and a determination was made that the additional taxes owed to the GRA are still outstanding.”GRA, however, cautioned that this amnesty period relates only to liabilities up to, and including, the Year of Assessment 2017, and not for the current year, 2018. The tax body clarified that only Income, Corporate, Property, Capital Gains and Withholding Tax-related penalties will be waived. It observed that interest which has been accumulated on trustee taxes such as Value Added Tax (VAT), PAYE (Pay As You Earn) remittances, Travel Voucher Tax, Travel Ticket Tax, and Premium Tax will not be waived.“Tax Amnesty was introduced in the 2018 National Budget in two phases: the first phase, January 1 to June 30, offered a full waiver of the interest and penalties; while the second phase, July 1 to September 30, is offering a 50 percent waiver. In the process of seeking amnesty, taxpayers are advised to request a tax status check/liability statement from the GRA’s Debt Management Unit before proceeding further,” GRA added.last_img read more

Barca hammer Sevilla for 30th Copa del Rey

first_imgBarca’s exhilarating display earns them their 30th triumph in this competition and fourth in a row, having reached the final in each of the last five years.But, despite hugs and high-fives at the end, the real celebrations will be put on ice until next Sunday, when victory over Deportivo La Coruna will confirm Ernesto Valverde’s side as La Liga champions too.Even a clean sweep of the domestic trophies, perhaps polished by La Liga’s first ever unbeaten season, will not eradicate the lingering disappointment from Barca’s Champions League exit to Roma.But this performance, as easy on the eye as it was emphatic, will certainly serve as a counter-point to those that believe Valverde’s team have been efficient, rather than exciting this season, and overly reliant on Messi.“Winning the Cup does not hide the disappointment in Rome,” Suarez said after the match. “But at the beginning of the season anyone would have signed for a double.”Messi was, of course, superb again on Saturday but this was not a one-man show.Suarez scored his 31st and 32nd goals of the season while Iniesta delivered one of those effortless displays, in which at times he was virtually unplayable.If this is to be the 33-year-old’s last Barca final before departing for China, it was a fitting farewell, with only goalkeeper Jasper Cillessen absent from the 10-man huddle that engulfed the Spaniard following his shimmying fourth.By the time Coutinho converted his penalty in the 69th minute, Barca were simply sharing the goals around.For Sevilla, defeat was always the most likely scenario but this was a whitewash.Sitting eighth in La Liga, even Europa League qualification now looks an outside bet and there may be repercussions for coach Vincenzo Montella and some of his players in the summer.“Barcelona has been superior in everything, they have extra-terrestrial players,” Montella said.“​​I’m very sorry for the fans who have been fantastic, sorry for the disappointments. I have seen crying in the dressing room but tomorrow, we have to work.”Amid ongoing political unrest between Catalonia and the Spanish government, Barca fans whistled during the national anthem before kick-off, with king Felipe VI watching on.Their jeers, however, were drowned out by the chants of Sevilla supporters.When the first goal arrived it came from a long Cillessen punt downfield as Coutinho found himself free behind the Sevilla backline and squared for Suarez to stab home.Iniesta hit the bar with a rasping shot from distance and soon they were two up, Jordi Alba keeping the ball alive with a backheel that Messi slammed into the roof of the net.Messi could have had a second were it not for an incorrect offside call and then a cynical foul by Sergio Escudero, for which he was lucky only to receive a yellow card.Both mattered little, however, as Messi set Suarez free in the 41st minute, and the Uruguayan slid a third under David Soria.It was another one-two, with Messi again the pivot, that released Iniesta in the second half as the midfielder’s dummy-shot left Soria scrambling and an open net for the midfielder to finish into.Resigned to their fate, Sevilla’s fans sang to the end, even as Coutinho despatched a penalty to make it five after the ball had struck Clement Lenglet on the arm.All that was left was for Iniesta’s substitution to be given a standing ovation before the captain hoisted the trophy, perhaps for the final time.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Fond farewell: Andres Iniesta hugs Lionel Messi before leaving the field © AFP / LLUIS GENEMADRID, Spain, Apr 22 – Lionel Messi and Luis Suarez inspired Barcelona to what will surely be the first part of a domestic double this season as they thrashed Sevilla 5-0 on Saturday to win the Copa del Rey.Messi had scored once and Suarez twice before even the half-time whistle had blown at the Wanda Metropolitano, with the sublime Andres Iniesta and Philippe Coutinho later compounding Sevilla’s humiliation.last_img read more

TORNADO SPOUT CAPTURED ON CAMERA OVER DONEGAL

first_imgThe tornado spout spotted over Donegal yesterday.This tornado spout was spotted dropping down from the clouds over West Donegal yesterday.The unusual weather feature was spotted by Niall Griffin over Gaoth Dobhair and heading out over Tory Island.It happened just after 1pm and thankfully didn’t reach land! TORNADO SPOUT CAPTURED ON CAMERA OVER DONEGAL was last modified: November 6th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalGaoth DobhairNiall Griffintornado spoutlast_img read more

Pomp, circumstance and commencement speakers

first_imgThe University of California, Los Angeles, College of Letters and Science, 5 p.m. June 16, Pauley Pavilion. Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa will speak. Additional ceremonies began Friday and will continue through June 18.160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! Here is a list of upcoming graduation ceremonies for local colleges and universities: California Lutheran University, 10 a.m. today in Samuelson Chapel. Swedish diplomat Jan Eliasson will be the commencement speaker. Moorpark College, 5:30 p.m. Thursday, campus center quad. Ventura County District Attorney Greg Totten will speak. California State University, Channel Islands, 9 a.m. May 20 on the south quad lawn. Pulitzer-prize winning author David McCullough will speak. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREBasketball roundup: Sierra Canyon, Birmingham set to face off in tournament quarterfinalsCalifornia State University, Northridge, honors convocation at 6 p.m. May 30 at the University Club. CSU Chancellor Charles B. Reed will speak. Department graduations will continue through June 2. Valley College, 4:30 p.m. June 7, Monarch Stadium. City Controller Laura Chick will speak. Mission College, 5 p.m. June 7, campus quad. Motivational speaker Tom Brown will speak. Pierce College, 6 p.m. June 7, Swisher Park. City Councilman Dennis Zine will speak. California Institute of Technology, 10 a.m. June 9, on Beckman Mall. Cal Tech President David Baltimore will speak. last_img read more

NORTH WEST 10K TO BE BIGGEST YET AS CHARITIES REVEALED

first_imgThe North West 10k sponsored by Donegal Daily and Brian McCormick Sports was launched this eveningThe organisers of the North West 10K say they are hopeful this year’s event will be the biggest and best to date.This year’s three main charities were announced this evening and they are – the Donegal Mountain Rescue Service, Friends of Letterkenny General Hospital and SNAP (Special Needs Accessible Playpark).Donegal Daily is one of the two main sponsors of this year’s event which organisers hope will attract up to 3,000 runners and walkers in Letterkenny on May 5th next. To date the magnificent efforts of the North West 10K event have aided 27 local charities to the tune of more than €614,000.Grace Boyle, chairperson of the event, said a great deal of planning has gone into this year’s event yet again.“We are hopeful it will be even bigger and better this year. We had 2,600 participants last year and we are hoping it could be up to 3,000 this year,” she told Donegal Daily.“We had a very high standard of charity applying for funding and we had some terrific interviews. “We could only pick three main charities but we are hoping to help as many others as possible.“They will have their own sponsorship cards and they will be able to fundraise for themselves.“We will help them but we will ask them to help us,” she said.Sponsorship cards for the event will be available from the Letterkenny Chamber of Commerce soon to ensure as much money as possible is raised for all the charities.The cost of entry is €10 for walkers and €15 for runners. The other major sponsor on the day is Brian McCormick Sports while there are also a number of smaller sponsors for the event.Further details on the event will be carried on Donegal Daily in the weeks leading up to the big day on May 5th.All you need to do now is to get out walking and reach a level of fitness you are happy with to get around the 10k course.Chairperson Grace Boyle said the aim of the NW 10K was to get people out and getting fit. “With 3,000 people on the streets of Letterkenny it would not be possible without al the agencies and we have a big responsibility.“It’s a great event and I don’t think there’s anything to touch it. We’re in hard times but so many people come in behind the North West 10K,” she said.Ms Boyle aslo paid a special tribute to the Letterkenny Community Centre for their contribution and their commitment at the centre.Spokespeople on behalf of the charities including Joe Brennan from the Donegal Mountain Rescue, Samantha Robinson on behalf of SNAP and Peter Cutliffe on behalf of the Friends of Letterkenny Hospital outlined their aims and thanks the NW 10K committee for choosing them.An appeal was also put out for 50 stewards to volunteer on the day and help marshall the course along the other services.Mayor of Letterkenny Dessie Larkin said the event has come on a long way and it will soon be past the one million euro mark of money raised over the years.“It’s a wonderful day that is dominated by the families. As a council we are engaging with people to see how we can get them out of their homes and their cars and get healthy.“We are about to spend €80,000 on lineage and signage and cycle lanes. The three charities are also wonderfully deserving charities and need no introduction but it is vital they are supported,” he said.Donegal Mayor of Letterkenny Frank McBrearty finished the night by saying the three charities speak for themselves.“All these charities are wonderfully deserving of the help of the North West 10K and it is fitting that we get behind them,” he said.“The fact that we have 3,000 people participating speaks volumes. These events help communities to come together and when that happens these events can be very, very powerful.“I have seen a lot of positives since I became the Mayor of Donegal but without people behind the scenes these events would not work,” he said.NORTH WEST 10K TO BE BIGGEST YET AS CHARITIES REVEALED was last modified: March 6th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:Brian McCormick SportsDonegal DailyNORTH WEST 10K TO BE BIGGEST YET AS CHARITIES REVEALEDlast_img read more