Jennifer Ellison Brown: Muscle contraction and types of movement

first_img When a prime mover contracts, the antagonist muscle will keep some fibres contracting to exert a ‘braking’ influence to stop the prime mover moving the joint so hard that the antagonist are damaged. Sometimes this system fails, for example, when a sprinter is running flat out, he may tear the hamstring and quickly come to a painful stop. The muscles we use depend on the activity, whether it requires muscles in the upper body or lower body to work together for short periods, or both at different phases of the activity, or most of the muscles of the body vigorously for longer periods (wrestling). All muscles contract and develop tension. However, the type of resistance the muscles meet will determine the type of muscle action. There are three main types of muscle contractions: – Isotonic concentric the muscles shorten as they contract and the ends of the muscle moves closer together e.g.; the biceps when doing pull ups. Most sporting movements are of this type. – Isotonic eccentric the muscles lengthen as they contract under tension, the ends of the muscles move further apart. e.g. the bicep works in this way when the body is lowered from pull-up position. – Isometric contraction the muscles stay the same length as they contract, there is no movement so the ends of the muscle stay the same distance apart. Shoulder muscles work in this way during the tug-o-war activity and the stabilising muscles that hold parts of the body steady as other parts move in many sporting movements. When we perform sporting activities we move our limbs in many different directions to affect the type of movements needed to execute various skills. Special words are used to describe the movements: – Extension The limbs straighten at the joint, eg, reaching to catch a ball (netball) – Flexion The limbs bend at the joint, eg, bending the trail leg at the knee when clearing hurdles. – Abduction The limbs move away from the midline of the body. – Adduction The limbs move towards the midline of the body – Rotation Circular movement. Part of the body turns while the rest remain still, E.g. rotation of the hip to play a shot in golf. – Circumduction- The end of a bone move in a circle, e.g., bowling in cricket – Inversion A lifting of the medial border of the arch combines with a medial bending of the front of the foot. – Eversion A slight rising of the lateral border of the foot combines with a slight lateral bending of the front of the foot. – Pronation Rotation of the forearm so that the palm turns medially. – Supination Rotation of the forearm so that the palm turns laterally. Every movement that takes place in the body depends on muscles. They work by contracting. The cardiac muscles in the heart contracts to pump blood out of the heart. Involuntary muscles in the artery walls contract to squirt the blood along and voluntary muscles which will be the main focus work when needed. A voluntary skeletal muscle contains nerves, which carry messages to and from the brain. Therefore, a muscle contracts when messages from the brain race along the nerve fibres, telling them to contract. It relaxes when the messages tell the fibres to lengthen again. Muscles work in pairs or groups. They have to work in pairs because muscles can only pull, they can’t push. For example, the biceps and triceps work together to execute the arm curl movement. To flex the arm, the biceps contract and the triceps relax. To straighten it, the triceps contract and the biceps relax. Large numbers of pairs of muscles are needed to work together in the different ways for even simple body movements. The muscles take on different roles, depending on the movement that is performed. They can work as: – Flexors contracting to bend a joint – Extensors contracting to straighten a joint – Prime movers or agonist contracting to start a movement (biceps muscles perform this role in arm curl) – Antagonist relaxing to allow the movement to take place (the triceps muscles perform this role in arm curl) The biceps and triceps will swap places as the prime mover and antagonist when arm is straightened. – Fixators contracting to steady parts of the body to give the working muscles a firm base. (the deltoid perform this role in the arm curl) – Synergist reducing unnecessary movement when a prime mover contracts. They can also fine tune the movement (the brachialis in the forearm performs this role in the arm curl) PAINFUL STOPlast_img read more

Cone concerned as streaking Ginebra goes on long break

first_imgChristopher Tolkien, son of Lord of the Rings author, dies aged 95 MOST READ Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Ginebra kept rolling on Sunday night after a wire-to-wire win over Alaska but the Kings won’t be back in action until July 6 in their final game of the elimination round something that concerns head coach Tim Cone.“We’re not out of the woods, we still have to go out and get one more. We got GlobalPort coming up in a couple of weeks. I wish we weren’t taking a break right now,” Cone told reporters after a 105-86 beatdown of the Aces.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown“We’re playing really good basketball. We’d like to keep our momentum going but we’ll see what happens after a couple weeks that’s the way the schedule is and we don’t control it.”Games won’t resume until July 4 as the league gives way to the Fiba World Cup Qualifiers where Gilas Pilipinas begins the third window on the road against rival Chinese Taipei on Friday before returning home and facing powerhouse Australia on July 2 at Philippine Arena. LATEST STORIES Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding Bicol riders extend help to Taal evacuees Former Lady Spiker Gyra Barroga shines in PSL debut for Cocolife Jiro Manio arrested for stabbing man in Marikinacenter_img Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netThe way Barangay Ginebra has been playing, a 12-day break is the only thing that could stop it from winning.Riding on a four-game winning run, the Gin Kings are one of the hottest teams in the league.ADVERTISEMENT Jury of 7 men, 5 women selected for Harvey Weinstein rape trial Ginebra forward and national team mainstay Japeth Aguilar, who arrived in Taipei Monday, thinks the long break will also help the Kings, especially the veterans and those who are having health issues, to recharge and recuperate.“We would’ve wanted to sustain our momentum, but it would be also nice for us to use the break as an opportunity to heal up,” he said.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ Taal victims get help from Kalayaan town Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Cloudy skies over Luzon due to amihan View commentslast_img read more

Dutch to assist in designing US$30M water treatment plants

first_imgThe Guyana Water Incorporated (GWI) has turned to its Dutch counterparts in Suriname, to assist in the designing of three new Water Treatment Plants to be built at Diamond, East Bank Demerara (EBD), Uitvlugt, West Coast Demerara (WCD) and Sheet Anchor, Canje, Berbice – at a cost of US$30 million.The decision was taken following a visit by a team of specialists from the Surinamese Water Supply Company (SWM), which discovered design flaws in the Linden Water Treatment Plant that has since been causing headaches for the residents of the community and GWI.This disclosure was made Friday as GWI wrapped up the Guyana leg of a partnership being fostered between the two countries’ utility companies, with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).GWI’s Managing Director Dr Richard Van West-Charles provided an update on the two-country partnership, along with IDB Country Representative Sophie Makonnen.The visiting Surinamese team included: Wendell Purperhart, chief of the Central Water Division Department (SWM); Anushka Salmin process engineer, and Jerrol Ferrier head of the West Division.Design flawsDr West-Charles told the media that it was discovered that the Linden Water Treatment Plant is being supplied through two sources of water – surface and below surface – but the treatment plant was designed to be supplied from only one source and this has led to the problems being experienced.He further disclosed that water samples have already been taken at the three proposed locations for the treatment plants, and this has since been sent to Suriname to be forwarded to the Netherlands for testing.He said the results will inform the level of collaboration required in relation to any redesigning of the treatment plants for Diamond, Uitvlugt and Sheet Anchor.The GWI head surmised that the process is expected to take about two weeks and will inform design parameters to be employed for the new plants.Guyana/Suriname MoUMeanwhile, providing an update on the partnership entered between the two countries, Dr West-Charles said GWI is looking forward to inking a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Surinamese, “that lives and helps us to move forward in the level of collaboration.”He reminded that the initiative is borne, in part, out of meetings between the two Heads of States – David Granger and Desi Bouterse – who would have held several ‘get-togethers’ with each other over the past six months, to discuss increased collaboration between the two countries.“We both would like to thank the IDB for this initiative and we will hope that we make this a fruitful venture,” Dr Van West-Charles said, in reference to charting the way forward.According to Dr West-Charles, the collaboration has been immensely useful to GWI and its team since, “our young engineers have been able to appreciate and improve their knowledge and skills in a number of areas.”Non-revenue waterHe told the local media corps that among the areas of cooperation GWI is keen on is the Surinamese approach to handling ‘non-revenue’ water – a result of theft and line losses in its distribution system.He said, “the Surinamese Water Company has managed to have 100 per cent of its consumers in the Nickerie region metered, and the ‘non-revenue’ water losses are at 20 per cent – an impressive feat by any comparison.”The GWI director said that a team from Guyana will be heading to Suriname next month as part of the continued partnership and that team will also be looking specifically at strategies that can be adopted by GWI in reducing its water losses.Meanwhile, addressing the local media corps at the GWI Head Office, Jerrol Ferrier welcomed the initiative and pointed to the fact that in the past there would have been visits by individuals between the two utility companies – this is the first time it has involved teams of specialists.“We have good programmes set up and we can assist with the experience,” he said, even as he pointed to the fact that the Surinamese are keen on learning some of the techniques developed by GWI.The Surinamese team arrived in Guyana earlier this week and over the successive days benefited from a number of site visits, including the beleaguered Linden Water Treatment Plant, GWI’s Shelter Belt and a number of well facilities, among others.The team during their visit also met with Vice President and Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade Minister Carl Greenidge and Minister within the Ministry of Communities, Dawn Hastings.last_img read more

Sanitary inspector orders closure of Port Mourant Market

first_imgA sanitary inspector on Tuesday afternoon ordered that the Port Mourant Market be closed and cleaned before reopening.Both the exterior and interior of the market will have to be cleaned; the sanitary inspector also ordered that the interior walls be scrubbed in an effort to sanitise the facility.The decision by the sanitary department has angered vendors who are said to have been experiencing reduced sales over the past two months.This, they claimed, is on account of other vendors who operate outside the market on Friday nights and retail vegetables at wholesale prices.Meanwhile, a standoff between the Port Mourant/Johns Neighbourhood Democratic Council (NDC) Overseer and cleaners attached to the Port Mourant Market has resulted in the market not being cleaned. Huge piles of garbage, including carcasses, were not removed from inside and outside of the market.The situation has resulted in some residents in the area temporally moving out. Sanitation workers have not been able to remove the waste, which has been left by fish vendors and other huskers who utilise the facility on Friday and Saturday.According to a source close to the market, the six cleaners have been requesting to have equipment to work with for the past four weeks and have been told that funds were not available to purchase rakes.Some of the workers have been using their personal tools to clean the market. According to the source, one of the workers had to purchase a bucket so that the toilet could be flushed after vendors use it.On Saturday, the workers were allegedly asked whether they wanted their August salaries, which they were still to collect, or tools since money was not available for both.According to the source, the workers were only requesting hand rakes which cost $2000 each.Meanwhile, the stench in the area has forced many persons to relocate. Richie Ramdehol says the current situation is making it uncomfortable for residents.Villagers say a few weeks ago a similar situation existed which resulted in the Port Mourant NIS office being closed for two days.Angela Newinkurk, a caretaker for a church next to the Market, said the stench has affected church attendance on Sundays.Meanwhile, the NDC has been collecting $10,000 from vendors weekly for the use of the sanitary facility. That money should be used for the welfare of the market.last_img read more

Scrap metal trade ban lifted temporarily – Gaskin

first_imgThe export of scrap metal will again resume for yet another limited period, or periods in this case, until legislation to govern the sector is passed.This was disclosed by Gaskin on Friday when questioned by this newspaper. According to him, he hopes to have the trade resumed for another limited period before the year ends, should the bill for the sector not be tabled in Parliament before December.“I know that we will try to do another limited resumption, and I think that will be how we will go ahead with it ‘till such time as the legislation is passed. We will assess the last limited resumption — I do have a report which I haven’t completely examined as yet — and once there are no red flags and there are no problems, we can do it again for another three months; and unfortunately, until the legislation is passed, we will have to intermittently do it,” he said.The Minister clarified that the limited resumption periods should not be “a big problem”, since they would allow for all of the piled scrap metal to be shifted off.It was informed by him that during the last period of limited resumption, held earlier this year, the Ministry was able to test-run its software system which was implemented to monitor the sector.As a result of the new system, he noted, the Ministry was able to pinpoint a few flaws, which can be addressed easily.Gaskin reported that he was certain that a large quantity of scrap metal was exported during that period, while he was unable to specify how much.Government had approved a restart of the scrap metal trade in Guyana during February 2017, after closing down the industry one year prior to that.The main reason for this was to allow exporters to ship out the existing stock for a limited period of three months, and ensure that there was no stockpile of the materials.However, in April 2018, after several months of delay, Government had decided to reopen the scrap metal trade on a limited basis to facilitate the clearing of some of the scrap metal accumulated across the country.At a previous meeting, Gaskin had said that resumption of the trade would give the MoB an opportunity to test the system to ensure that it works, and also to help clear some of the accumulated scrap metal that had been legitimately acquired.The scrap metal trade was suspended in June 15, 2015 after a forensic audit was done by the Scrap Metal Unit (SMU), which monitors the trade.Government approved a restart of the scrap metal trade during February 2017, after shuttering the industry one year prior. The main reason for this restart was to allow exporters to ship out their existing stock for a limited period of three months, thereby ensuring there was no stockpile of materials.However, in April 2018, after several months of delays and much criticism, Government was pressured to reopen the scrap metal trade on a limited basis to facilitate the clearing of some of the scrap metal accumulated across the country.last_img read more

Public Security Ministry seeks help of AG Chambers

first_img– as millions in overpayments to staffers uncoveredOver at the Public Security Ministry, a situation has arisen wherein some staff members have been overpaid by millions, prompting the Ministry to seek help from the Attorney General to recover the money.This is according to the Auditor General’s (AG) 2017 report, which was recently made public. According to the AG, ten public servants were overpaid in that fiscal year by $1.3 million.While some of the money was subsequently recovered, some $1.1 million is still outstanding. Monies were also outstanding from the previous year. According to the report, overpayments totalling $2.5 million were made.Some of the money has also been recovered, leaving approximately $1.5 million in limbo. All may not be lost, however, as the Ministry revealed that they have sought the help of the Attorney General Chambers.But why did the overpayments occur in the first place? According to the AG report,Ministry of Public Securitya pay change mix-up with the Central Accounting Unit at the Ministry is responsible for the overpayments.In their recommendations, the AG urged the Ministry to continue in its efforts to recover the money. In addition, the office recommended that the interface with the Central Accounting Unit be enhanced to prevent recurrences.Overpayments of salaries to staff are not isolated incidents. Nor are they limited to Ministries. Hundreds of thousands of dollars in salaries were overpaid to staff of the Region Six (East Berbice-Corentyne) Administration, and this was flagged by the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) earlier this year.The meeting had revealed that since the Auditor General cited the issue in his 2016 report, not much has changed. In the Auditor General’s 2016 report, overpayment of salaries was flagged as a prior year issue that was partially implemented.In the Auditor General’s 2015 report, it was recorded that “Fourteen and seventeen employees were overpaid net salaries for the years 2012 and 2014, respectively, with the related deductions also being overpaid to the various agencies.Although the regional administration made some progress with recovery of these overpayments, this situation recurred in 2015 with nine employees being overpaid. However, to date, there has been no progress with the recovery of the deductions paid over to the various agencies.”It was also reported that “Unpaid net salaries totalling $9.838 million were refunded to the Consolidated Fund for the years 2012 to 2014. However, the related deductions totalling $2.075 million paid to various agencies were still not recovered.Similarly, for 2015, amounts totalling $1.471 million were refunded to the Consolidated Fund as unpaid salaries for thirty-six” employees, and the related deductions of $308,946 paid to the various agencies were also not recovered.”last_img read more

Sawmill fire in Chetwynd on Sunday

first_imgThe West Fraser sawmill in Chetwynd was hit by fire last night. It broke out about 7 o’clock, and was isolated by interior fire spinklers, and 17 fire-fighters, to the file room of the mill.Fire Chief Leo Sabulsky says, it’s believed the fire was caused, by a faulty piece of machinery. There were no injuries reported.- Advertisement -The Chetwynd Fire Department was at the scene, for about two hours.last_img

KPL trio eager to help Burundi at AFCON

first_img0Shares0000L-R: Mousa Omar, Justin Ndikumana, Karim Nizigiyimana and Francis Mustafa after Burndi training at the Ittihad Alexandria Club on June 21, 2019CAIRO, Egypt, Jun 21 – Three Kenyan Premier League players will be on show when Burundi make their debut at the Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) with their Group B opening game against Nigeria’s Super Eagles in Alexandria on Saturday night.Gor Mahia’s Francis Mustafa as well as the Sofapaka duo of keeper Justin Ndikumana and Mousa Omar are part of Burundi’s squad for the tournament in Cairo and speaking to Capital Sport, the three aim to give their best and see their country succeed. “It is great thing to be here for the tournament and we have prepared very well for it. We are not here to tour; we are here to show that we have the ability and we qualified by merit,” Gor Mahia’s Mustafa stated.He added; “We have a tough opening game against Nigeria. We know they are a good team and have been champions before but we are not playing against names. They have two legs, we have two legs and we will fight it off on the pitch for 90 minutes.”Burundi and Gor Mahia player Francis Mustafa passes the ball under pressure from Shassir Nahimana during a training session at the Ittihad Alexandria Club on June 21, 2019Mustafa hasn’t really kicked in well since joining Gor towards the end of last season and this has been mostly due to a positional switch. While at Gor he plays as a centre forward, he is employed as a holding midfielder at national team level and that is where he has flourished.At the same time, goalkeeper Justin Ndikumana is hopeful that the team can get to the round of 16 in the least, saying he believes the team has prepared well.The Sofapaka shot stopper was handed a starting role in the team’s final warm up match against Tunisia in Rades, a match they lost 2-1 conceding a late goal. He is competing for a starting slot with Tanzania based Jonathan Nahimana.If given a chance, Ndikumana says he will put in his best to ensure the Swallows make an impression.Burundi and Sofapaka keeperJustin Ndikumana with former Kakamega Homeboyz shot-stopper Arthur Arakaza during a training session at the Ittihad Alexandria Club on June 21, 2019“Football is like a party and we are here to show our talents. We worked so hard to qualify for the tournament and now that we have achieved that target, it is time to prove that we are here by merit. We have prepared well and I believe with the strategy we have, we can make history,” Ndikumana noted.The Burundian team is laden with players who have previously plied their trade in Kenya and on top of the two, there is third choice keeper Arthur Arakaza, former Sofapaka forward Abdul Razak Fiston and former Gor Mahia right back Karim Nizigiyimana.Nizigiyimana left Gor for Ugandan side Vipers at the beginning of last season and skippered the Burundians to the Cup of Nations.He however struggled with injury for most of 2017 but slowly came back to action towards the end of last season. His lack of regular first team football led him to leave for Vipers where he says he has played enough and is back to his best.Burundi players during a training session at the Ittihad Alexandria Club on June 21, 2019The marauding right back believes this upcoming AFCON is his chance to prove that he is back to the top of his game.I have settled well in Vipers and playing a whole season has been good for me. I believe I am back to the Karim that people knew at Gor and I have trained well for this AFCON and I will indeed show that I am back,” Nizigiyimana told Capital Sport.He added; “As a team I believe we are ready. We have played very tough friendly games and they have made us toughen up.”0Shares0000(Visited 5 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

Mortgage relief bill advances

first_imgThe House last month passed legislation to expand backing of mortgages by the Federal Housing Administration, which now insures some 3.7 million loans in the event of default, with a view to helping struggling homeowners avoid foreclosure. “Families dealing with the pain of a foreclosure should not have the double whammy of a large tax bill,” Rep. Charles Rangel, D-N.Y., chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, said of the tax-relief measure he sponsored. To help offset the $650 million in tax revenue, the legislation also makes it harder to get breaks on capital gains taxes for the sale of second homes. The White House supports the tax measure but wants the mortgage relief to be in effect for three years, not permanent, as approved by the House. President George W. Bush is opposed to limiting tax breaks on the sale of second homes. The Mortgage Bankers Association expressed strong support for the tax-relief bill, but fiercely criticized the bankruptcy measure. “Lenders will have no choice but to move to foreclosure right away to ensure that they are not covered by the onerous provisions of this bill,” the group said in a statement. “In the longer term, investors and speculators who overpaid for homes at the height of the housing bubble will have an incentive to file for bankruptcy, walk away from the loan and property, and reap an undeserved windfall.”160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! WASHINGTON – Financial relief for homeowners facing foreclosure or in bankruptcy advanced in the House on Thursday as the House approved legislation to help financially strapped homeowners. The bill, passed by a 386-to-27 vote, would give a tax break to homeowners who have mortgage debt forgiven as part of a foreclosure or a reworking of a loan. The value of that forgiveness, which is now taxable as income, would become tax-exempt. While the measure is anticipated to reduce the taxes of some strapped homeowners by a total of $650 million, it also looks to help offset that by limiting a tax break available on the sale of second homes. Another measure, narrowly approved by a House Judiciary subcommittee and opposed by Republicans on the panel, has been sent to the full Judiciary Committee. It would revise the bankruptcy code to help homeowners facing default and foreclosure, biting into already hard-hit profits at mortgage lenders. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREChargers go winless in AFC West with season-ending loss in Kansas CityThat bill would allow judges to order mortgage lenders to ease terms for homeowners in bankruptcy proceedings. Currently, mortgage lenders can foreclose against a homeowner in default 90 days after the filing of bankruptcy. Legislation similar to both bills is pending in the Senate. Mortgage lenders would be “terrified” of getting wrapped up in bankruptcy proceedings, said Brian Gardner, a research analyst with investment firm Keefe, Bruyette & Woods. The House vote was the latest congressional reaction to a mortgage crisis touched off this spring by a blowup in high-priced home loans for risky borrowers, which has thrown a pall over the economy. An estimated 2 million to 2.5 million adjustable-rate mortgages – worth some $600 billion – will jump from low initial “teaser” rates to higher rates this year and next. Steep pre-payment penalties have made it difficult for some to get out of their mortgages, and some overstretched homeowners can’t afford to refinance or sell their homes. Foreclosures are at record highs and late payments are spiking. Lenders have been forced out of business and investors have taken huge financial hits. last_img read more

COPE CYCLES NAMED AS SPONSORS FOR DONEGAL’S NEWEST CYCLING TEAM

first_imgCope Cycles are proud to be one of the sponsors of Donegal’s newest Cycling Team, Advanced Athletes Academy (AAA). Advanced Athletes Academy has been set up to promote athletic excellence for youths through mentoring by elite athletes.In conjunction with cyclists who are committed to youth development, AAA will… •Actively seek new talent and develop from U12 through to senior level.•Engage with local schools and clubs encouraging participation in the sport•Aim to promote an annual National Secondary Schools Cycling Championship to be hosted in Donegal.•Offer a way forward to those with the talent to progress and act as a conduit to the Continent for the best young riders •Focus on youth riders long term development and educational advancement•We have currently secured commitment from a number senior elite cyclists who in turn will help to attract and develop the best available youth riders to our youth development programme.The launch of AAA Cycling will take place on Friday night in the Bayview Bar, Dungloe, Co.Donegal at 9pm and we would be delighted if you would attend.   COPE CYCLES NAMED AS SPONSORS FOR DONEGAL’S NEWEST CYCLING TEAM was last modified: March 6th, 2015 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:AAABusinesscopeCYCLINGdungloenewsSportlast_img read more